Lear has been appointed by the World Bank Group to build and deliver a database encompassing information on key policy dimensions regarding State-owned enterprises (“SOEs”) in 20 countries for 22 sectors, including input and manufacturing sectors, in each of the selected countries. Such information is key to understand and identify the role of SOEs in the markets and how their presence can shape the competitive dynamics. Lear will also deliver a report including statistical and qualitative analyses of data collected apt to identify patterns across different types of government interventions and competition enforcement.
Lear is supporting one of Italy’s leading airport operators in the preparation of its position paper in the public consultation issued by the Italian Transport Regulator on the revision of regulatory models for airport charges. Lear’s contribution is aimed at providing a reconstruction of the competitive dynamics prevailing in the markets where airports operate and at expressing general evaluations on the regulatory regime envisaged by the Italian Transport Regulator, also in light of the European legislation and the best practices emerging from other European countries.
Lear has been appointed by the European Commission to carry out an ex-post evaluation of EU competition enforcement looking at acquisitions of innovative competitors in the pharmaceutical sector that have led to the discontinuation of overlapping drug research and development projects to the detriment of future competition (“killer acquisitions”). Continue reading Support study for DG COMP on killer acquisitions in the pharmaceutical sector – ongoing
Lear, together with E.CA Economics, Sheppard Mullin and University of East Anglia, carried out a study on behalf of the European Commission to assist in the revision the Community guidelines on State aid for railway undertakings. The objective of the revision is to ensure that the guidelines are apt to promote the full liberalization of the rail sector, and ultimately to favour a modal shift from road to less polluting transport modes such as rail and inland waterways, while also ensuring a level-playing field in the internal market. The study addresses certain study questions that the Commission wishes to investigate to support its revision of the guidelines, providing factual and analytical evidence that may be useful in the revision process. Lear was mainly responsible for addressing study questions regarding the state of rolling stock and of the rail infrastructure in the EU. To carry out the assigned tasks, Lear consultants performed a thorough review of the existing literature, collected information from relevant stakeholders through written questionnaires and several targeted interviews and performed original empirical analyses.
Lear, together with DIW Berlin, E.CA Economics, Sheppard Mullin and University of East Anglia, has been appointed by the European Commission to carry out a background study on State aid in the field of environmental protection and energy. The results of the study supported the Commission in the revision of the EU Guidelines on State aid for environmental protection and energy (EEAG) as well as the respective parts of the General Block Exemption Regulation (GBER). The study assisted the Commission in updating the Guidelines to ensure that they were fit-for-purpose, taking into account the general State aid modernisation objectives and the recent regulatory developments (notably the Clean Energy Package, Clean Mobility Package and Circular Economy Package), and that they facilitated the implementation of the European Green Deal. The revision of the Guidelines also took into account the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Member States economies and their funding capabilities together with the deployment of the Recovery Plan for Europe.
Find out more on the published study here
Learn more on the revision of the EEAG and GBER
Read more on our engagement on State-aid rules for environmental protection and energy
Lear assisted a major Italian broadcaster in preparing a submission for a consultation launched by the European Commission and aimed at assessing whether the Market definition Notice, adopted by the European Commission in 1997, is still “fit-for-purpose”. Lear economists consulted with the client and drafted the submission on its behalf.
Lear assisted one of the main Italian airport operators in the preparation of its position paper in the public consultation issued by the Italian Transport Regulator concerning its proposals for the regulation of airport charges. Continue reading Public consultation on regulation of airports tariffs
As part of the ongoing fitness check of current State aid rules, the Directorate General for Competition of the European Commission has appointed a consortium led by Lear and participated by DIW Berlin and Sheppard Mullin, to carry out a study to support its evaluation of the rules regarding airports’ access to operating aid under the EU Aviation Framework applicable as of 2014. Continue reading Evaluation study for the European Commission on the State aid rules for operating aid to airports
Lear, in consortium with Sheppard Mullin and DIW Berlin, was appointed by the European Commission to carry out a study seeking to evaluate the relevance and effectiveness of the rules included in the General Block Exemption Regulation and in the Risk Finance Guidelines, that the Commission set out for Member States to provide aid to Small and Medium Enterprises to facilitate their access to finance. The study relied on: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) interviews with selected stakeholders, i.e. beneficiaries that received support under SME access to finance measures, financial intermediaries involved in risk finance measures, and European and national associations representing SMEs as well as investors active in the SME finance market; (iii) five relevant case studies of national schemes implemented through the General Block Exemption Regulation or the Risk Finance Guidelines.
Final report is avalaible here
The new track access charge system approved by the Italian regulator (“ART”, Autorità di Regolazione Trasporti) and implemented by the Italian infrastructure manager has determined a significant increase to the fee for international passenger transport. Continue reading Regulatory dispute on access charges to the rail infrastructure